Microprocessor – All concepts, programming, interfacing and applications explained. The interfacing of along with is dong in I/O mapped I/O. The and are RAM and I/O chips to be used in the A and microprocessor systems. The RAM portion is designed with static cells. The timer consists of two 8-bit registers. 1. 8-bit LSB and 8-bit MSB. 2. In these 16 bits, 14 bits are used for counter and two bit for mode.

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For example, multiplication is implemented using a multiplication algorithm. An immediate imcroprocessor can also be moved into any of the foregoing destinations, using the MVI instruction.

Some of them microprocessof followed by one or two bytes of data, which can be an immediate operand, a memory address, or a port number. However, an circuit requires an 8-bit address latch, so Intel manufactured several support chips with an address latch built in. The uses approximately 6, transistors.

The only 8-bit ALU operations that can have a destination other than the accumulator are the unary incrementation or decrementation instructions, which can operate on any 8-bit register or on memory addressed by HL, as for two-operand 8-bit operations. Lastly, the carry flag is set if a carry-over from bit 7 of the accumulator the MSB occurred.

The is a binary compatible follow up on the The sign flag is set if the result has a negative sign i. The has extensions to support new interrupts, with three maskable vectored interrupts RST 7.

In many engineering schools [7] [8] the processor is used in introductory microprocessor courses. One sophisticated instruction is XTHL, which is used for exchanging the register pair HL with the value stored at the address indicated by the stack pointer. It has a bubble memory option and various programming modules, including EPROM, and Intel and programming micgoprocessor which are plugged into the side, replacing stand-alone device programmers.

A NOP “no operation” instruction exists, but does not modify any of the registers or flags. The parity flag is set according to the parity odd or even of the accumulator. An Intel AH processor. These instructions use bit operands and include indirect loading and storing of a word, a subtraction, a shift, a rotate, and offset operations. There are also eight one-byte call instructions RST for subroutines located at the fixed addresses 00h, 08h, 10h, Views Read Edit View history.


Also, microprrocessor architecture and instruction set of the are easy for a student to understand. Although the is an 8-bit processor, it has some bit operations.

Intel 8085

The accumulator stores the results of arithmetic and logical operations, and the flags register bits sign, zero, auxiliary carry, parity, and carry flags are set or cleared according to the results of these operations. Adding the stack pointer to HL is useful for indexing variables in recursive stack frames. In other microprocessorr Wikimedia Commons.

Sorensen, Villy January The is a conventional von Neumann design based on the Intel Discontinued BCD oriented 4-bit The Intel ” eighty-eighty-five ” is an 8-bit microprocessor produced by Intel and introduced in Sorensen in the process of developing an assembler. By using this site, you agree to microprocsssor Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. This page was last edited on 16 Novemberat Retrieved from ” https: The can also be clocked microproocessor an external oscillator making it feasible to use the in synchronous multi-processor systems using a system-wide micropricessor clock for all CPUs, or to synchronize the CPU to an external time reference such as that from a video source or a high-precision time reference.

Operations that have to be implemented by program code subroutine libraries include comparisons of signed integers as well as multiplication and division.

Microprocessor Tutorial

SIM and RIM also allow the global interrupt mask state and the three independent RST interrupt mask states to be read, the pending-interrupt states of those same three interrupts to be read, the RST micrroprocessor.

Direct copying is supported between any two 8-bit registers and between any 8-bit register and a HL-addressed memory cell, using the MOV instruction. Later and support was added including ICE in-circuit emulators.


The auxiliary or half carry flag is set if a carry-over from bit 3 to bit 4 occurred. The CPU is one part of a family of chips developed by Intel, for building a complete system. This unit uses the Multibus card cage which was intended just for the development system. A number of undocumented instructions and flags were discovered by two software engineers, Wolfgang Dehnhardt and Villy M.

The other six registers can be used as independent byte-registers or as three bit register pairs, BC, DE, and HL or B, D, H, as referred to in Intel documentsdepending on the particular instruction.

Intel – Wikipedia

Like larger processors, it has CALL and RET instructions for multi-level procedure calls and returns which can be conditionally executed, like jumps and instructions to save and restore any bit register-pair on the machine stack.

Retrieved 31 May These instructions are written in the form of a program which is used to perform various operations such as branching, addition, subtraction, bitwise logicaland bit shift operations. It is a large and heavy desktop box, about a 20″ cube in the Intel corporate blue color which includes a CPU, monitor, and a single 8-inch floppy disk drive.

The screen and keyboard can be switched between them, allowing programs to be assembled on one processor large programs took awhile while files are edited in the other. As in many other 8-bit processors, all instructions are encoded in a single byte including register-numbers, but excluding immediate datafor simplicity. Only a single 5 volt power supply is needed, like competing processors and unlike the This capability matched that of the competing Z80a popular derived CPU introduced the year before.

State signals are provided by dedicated bus control signal pins and two dedicated bus state ID pins named S0 and S1.

Pin 39 is used as the Hold pin.