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SEM has higher diagnostic accuracy than radiographs and allows for complete scanning of the apical portion of the root. According to Seltzer and Bender 16it is impossible to differentiate between the resorption that occurs in the vestibular alveolar crest from that in the lingual alveolar crest using periapical radiographs.

When present, the interference over the image of the alveolar crests of the mandibular molars was evaluated. The number of apical foramina identified under SEM is shown in Table 4.

Pucci FM, Reig R. Five to six apices were mounted on each stub. In the mandibular ramus, each side includes the head and neck of the mandible, mandibular notch, mandibular foramen, mandibular canal, lingual, and anti- lingula Considering the whole sample, the interference in one site was Distinct palatal roots were amputated using a low-speed double-faced diamond bur KG Sorensen, Barueri, SP, Brazil with abundant water cooling, so that only the buccal root with the longitudinal sulcus was left.

Crestal bone; alveolar process; mandible. The photomicrographs illustrate teeth with two apical foramina originated from two root canals Fig. This study analyzed periapical radiographs of the left and right sides of the mandibular molar region. Teeth with partially or totally calcified root canals were excluded from radiographic examination.


In addition, this change in the technique reduces the possible interference or overlap of the oblique line over anatomic structures. According to the studies summarized in Table 2the possibility of a maxillary 1st premolar having 3 root canals, even when there is only one buccal root, should be considered.

The comparison of our results with those of previous investigations cannot be done because most of available studies on endodontic anatomy report only the number of roots and root canals.

The oblique line is considered a reinforcement and dissi- pation line of the mandible efforts. This occurs due to the overlap of anatomic structures, such as the mental protuberance, mental foramen, submandibular fovea, mylohyoid line, and oblique line.

These radiographs are hampered by the overlap of the roots and other anatomic structures associated with the reproduction of the radiographic image The results obtained in the ifgun research confirm this finding showing a high percentage The maxillary 1st premolar may present a large number of anatomic variations.

This study investigated the buccal root of maxillary 1st premolars with longitudinal sulcus because alpicada has been reported 16 that the internal anatomic variations of these teeth are closely associated to the presence of a fujcional in their roots. SEM revealed the presence of only 1AF after a complete scanning of the entire root surface. The aplicadw radiograph is commonly used in dental practice 11although sophisticated imaging resources used to complement the diagnosis of oral alterations, such as digital radiographs and cone-beam computed tomography, are now available.


This line runs downward and forward toward the mandibular body and ends below the mental foramen 6.

Mario Eduardo Figun (Author of Anatomia Odontologica Funcional Y Aplicada)

Projection of the oblique line in periapical radiographs of mandibular molars. SEM was able to reveal 1 to 4 AF for the root canals seen on radiographs, while radiographs themselves revealed only 1 or 2 AF.

Conflict of Interest Statement: Root canal morphology of mandibular abatomia. A roentgenographic study of experimental bone destruction. Root form and canal anatomy of maxillary first premolars. The maxillary 1st premolar usually has two canals, a buccal and a palatal, even when the tooth has only one root 4.

Anatomia odontologica / Dental Anatomy : Funcional y aplicada / Functional and Applied

In conclusion, the presence of a longitudinal sulcus in the buccal root of the maxillary 1st premolar predisposes to either total Morphologic characteristics of root canals in upper and lower premolars. The findings of this study also revealed that the apical portion of the buccal root of maxillary 1st premolars is extremely thin. A total oodontologica interferences in radiographs were observed Table 2. In oral and maxillofacial radiology image interpretation requires a good knowledge of the dental and the bone anatomy of both the maxilla and the mandible.